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HAIR

HAIR

HAIR

Hair is beautiful and undeniably seductive. It is vital to know everything about it in order to take care of it properly!

HAIR

Hair is beautiful and undeniably seductive. It is vital to know everything about it in order to take care of it properly!

1 - Structure of the hair

The human head of hair has an average of 150 thousand hairs that grow 1 to 1.5 cm per month. The hair, or stem, is produced in the hair follicle. The latter can be represented as a tube-shaped cavity in the skin, at the base of which the bulb is located, in the place where the hair follicle cells are actively dividing. These are then pushed upwards and will form the stem by keratinising.

The stem is made up of three layers:

  • Cuticule: this is the outer sheath; it is composed of flat cells in scales
  • Cortex: this is composed of elongated cells consisting of proteins such as keratin, rich in sulphur
  • Marrow: this is the central portion connected to the bulb; it supplies the elements required for nutrition of the cells


Keratin represents 50% of hair proteins. This is what gives them their shape and resistance. It consists of amino acids: glycine, leucine, cysteine.
The sebaceous gland, which secretes sebum for lubricating the hair, opens into the upper part of the hair follicle.
Melanocytes are cells that synthesise melanin, the pigment responsible for hair colour. Their disappearance, with age, turns the hair white. 

Two kinds of pigments are present:

  • granular pigments, brown to black, which govern the dark or "reddish" tones
  • diffuse pigments, yellow to light brown, for the blond tones.


It is the mixture of these two types of pigments which determine the natural colour of each hair and explains the infinity of the pallet. 
In France, first place goes to brown hair (more than 50% of the population). With the mixing of populations, this has been in constant increase over the last century. The least frequently found pigmentation is red (5% of the population).
 
2 - Why do we lose our hair?

It is normal to lose 50-100 hairs a day with a seasonal peak in the spring and autumn. Hair is living: its structure is complex, its growth cyclical, and its fall genetically programmed.
 
The life of the hair is punctuated by a cycle that evolves in three phases:

  • a growth phase (anagen) that concerns 90% of the hair and lasts an average of three years
  • a regression phase (catagen) that lasts only a few weeks 
  • a resting phase (telogen) that lasts several months, during which the hair gradually detaches and falls. When everything is running normally, a new hair then replaces it. Each follicle can produce an average of 25-30 hairs.


Taken together, these three phases last three to four years for each hair.
In general, hair loss has many causes: significant stress, poor diet, fatigue, seasonal changes, etc.

The hair reflects the body's overall health. So managing stress, eating healthy, and combining dietary supplements and suitable cosmetics will help maintain beautiful hair.

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